The measure of poverty status of rural population has been presented in this report of total population counted 111.4 million in 1991 census the rural population size was found 89.0 million or 79.8 percent. Such vast number of rural people depend for their livelihood on mainly agriculture of which crop farming is dominant. Rice is the principal staple crop raised in three seasons every year. Its contribution to total value added of all crops combined together is nearly 72%.
The seasonal rice production is observed to have close bearing on poverty status of rural people. It is believed that with much higher quantities of rice becoming available during peak harvest months the food intakes and consequently poverty measures of people improve. On the other hand, in post-rice harvest lean months of October and April, the poverty status demonstrates a relative deteoriation for reduced rice availability and lower food intakes.
With a view to capturing the states of poverty in two lean months, a special regular survey programme has been undertaken. The first lean month survey was taken up and completed in October 1994. This report has been prepared giving detailed findings of this survey.
The promotion of welfare of people has been a priority concern of government. The progrmme of food distribution and also health care, credit service and relief measures are all targeted to promote welfare of the poor. The gains from all these targeted strategies can be assessed from size of population living at poverty level. Therefore, the measurement of poverty is the basic objective defined and adopted for monitoring on a regular basis.
Several indicators have been identified to measure the extent of poverty of rural households. These indicators relate to housing condition, safe water supply and sanitation, disease and health service, income and expenditure, food and calorie intakes and crisis coping capacity. The objectives are to quantify these indicators in the context of measuring and reporting the poverty status of rural households.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS
Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning
A two stage stratified sampling design was followed in drawing the sample for Poverty Monitoring Survey 94. The list of the enumeration areas (EA) of 1991 Population Census was used as the sample frame. Each EA of Population Census 91 is the cluster of around 100 households. These EAs were treated as primary sampling unit (PSU). First of all, the universe, i.e. the whole country was divided into two strata: urban & rural. Each of the two strata was further subdivided into 23 sub-strata, i.e. each of the 23 regions (greater districts) formed a separate sub stratum. Using the 1991 population census frame, a sample of 300 enumeration areas (PSUs) was allocated to the 23 regions of urban stratum at the first stage. Proportional allocation was made while allocating PSUs to the 23 regions. Table-1a and Table-1b show the distribution of PSUs (1st stage sample). Then the required number of EAs (PSUs) were drawn systematically using a random start. All the households in the selected EAs were listed completely in a listing form. Then a sub-sample of 20 households was drawn randomly from each selected EA using a random number table. Thus in the urban universe, there were 300*20, i.e. 6,000 (six thousand) households in the sample. Similar procedure was adopted for drawing sample from the rural universe except that the number of enumeration areas (EAS) selected for the rural universe was 500 and the una households 500*20.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Extensive training was planned for this extended survey. Training was imparted in two phases. In the first phase the Regional Statistical Officers (RSO) were imparted training at headquarters in Dhaka by the senior officers of BBS. Later, these RSOs (master trainers) imparted training to the Thana Statistical Officers and the local enumerators. The duration of the training was two days in each stage. The first day was devoted to class room lecture and the second day was used for field demonstration. The data collection work was supervised by the Thana Statistical Officers. Higher level supervision was carried out by the RSOs. In addition, the senior officers of BBS and CIRDAP visited some sample areas.
Type of Research Instrument
A manual questionnaire was canvassed in the survey. The format of the questionnaire included 13 separate sections. The survey individual questions pertained to all such household characteristics as could be broadly classified into, (i) housing, family size, demography and education (ii) land and other asset ownership (iii) income and expenditure (iv) credit and crisis management and (V) living condition
Ministry of Planning
Preliminary edit was done by TSOs at the thana level. Manual editing of data was performed in selected Regional Statistical Offices and the project headquarters by a standard editing manual. After editing, the data were entered through microcomputer. The entered data were also edited and verified to eliminate errors and omissions in the entry stage. Moreover, computer edit was done by a sophisticated edit programme for cleaning the data. Finally, the tables were run with the edited and cleaned data.