The Household Expenditure Survey 1995 is the fifth round of such survey series. The survey is designed to assess trend of consumption patterns and levels of living of population. It also provides data for evaluating impact of public policies on peopl&s welfare. Besides, the results may help research institutes as well as individual researchers in their research endeavours and government agencies in formulating and monitoring poverty alleviation programmes.
The report presents a number of core indicators about population profile with urban and rural disaggregation. Emphasis has been given in providing as comprehensive a data base from survey findings as possible. To this end, new sets of data series have been included in the present edition in order to meet a range of user needs.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Percentage of households, population, household size and other characteristics by land ownership classification
Population below poverty line by male and female classification
Household average annual income by broad expenditure classification and saving
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Report on the Household Expenditure Survey
Ministry of Planing
The entire geographic area of Bangladesh excluding Chittagong H.T., Khagrachari and Bandarban Districts constituted the universe for sample. Dahagram & Angurputa, Chitmahals and Sundarban forest areas (comprising Buri Goalini range of Sharankhola thana Nalian range of Dacope thana and Chandpai range of Mangla thana) are also excluded from the sample. The universe has been divided into four strata which run as follows:
Stratum 1 SMAs (the four Statistical Metropolitan Areas-Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna and Rajshahi);
Stratum 2 Pourashavas (excluding SMAs) that existed in 1981;
Stratum 3 Pourashavas created after 1981 and included in the census of non-farm Economic Activities and Disabled Persons of Bangladesh in 1986;
Stratum 4 All other areas excluding the areas included in strata 1 through 3.
Under the Bangladesh Household Survey Capability Programme, strata 1, 2 And 3 constitute urban area of the country. The same classification was followed in HES 1995.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS
STATISTICS AND INFORMATICS DIVISION
Two stage stratified sampling was used in selecting the samples. in the first stage 240 rural PSUs and 120 urban PSUs were selected following the PPS with replacement. in the second stage, 16 households from each of the selected PSUs were selected adopting the circular systematic sampling technique.
A total of 360 Mauza/Mahalla (PSUs) was selected from the universe out of which 120 are urban and 240 are rural. The urban PSUs were distributed among the strata 1, 2 and 3 (the 240 rural PSUs belong to stratum 4). The distribution of the 120 urban PSUs into different strata is given below
Stratum No. of urban PSUs
16 households from each selected PSU was finally been selected for the sample survey as ultimate sampling units. 5760 households (urban 1920 and rural 3840) were enumrated. Total population thus covered turned out to be 30,797 (urban 10,253 and rur 20,544) which gives a urban-rural ratio in the order of 33:67. While calculating average national figures from rural and urban HES, the urban population weight for 1995 was estimated at about 13.5 per cent of the totaL population.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Two stage stratified sampling was used in selecting the samples. in the first stage 240 rural PSUs and 120 urban PSUs were selected following the PPS with replacement. in the second stage, 16 households from each of the selected PSUs were selected adopting the circular systematic sampling technique. Details of sampling are provided in appendix-2.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
The field level data collction started 1st September, 1995. It was completed by 31st August, 1995 under the overall supervision of the Director (in-charge) of RTSS Wing. Four statistical officers (one for each of the four divisions) assisted by four assistant statistical officers (ASOs) of the Wing helped the Director in conducting the field operation. The field operation was organised on division basis. The SOs were responsible for field supervision and preliminary checking offilled-in schedules and diary books. Regional statistical officers (RSOs) performed responsibility of selection, appointment and training of diary keepers. Training of all regional level officers (RSOs and ASOs) was held at BBS headquarters in Ohaka. The training of enumerators of each division was conducted at 22 regional statistical offices under guidance of a responsible officer from Dhaka headquarters (HQ). Sample households were drawn quarterly in HQ and listings of selected households with identification numbers were sent in time to regional offices for enumeration. Selection and training of the diary keepers and identification of selected households assigned to them were completed prior to commencement of field work under supervision of RSOs/ASOs. In selecting diary keepers, preference was given to females. For smooth running of field operation a special monitoring cell was setup in HQ with a statistical officer in charge.
Various quality control measureswere adopted at collection stage in the field as well as at data processing stage. The divisional co-ordinators paid extensive visits to field offices as well as PSUs dUring field work. They verified several key aspects of field enumeration particularly whether.
(i) diary keepers were properly trained,
(ii) sample households had been identified properly and supervisors regularly supervised field work of diary keepers, and
(iii) diary books had been maintained properly and broad consistencies in data collected had been checked.
Type of Research Instrument
Two types of questionnaires were used in collection of data in 1995. Data collection for each sample household was a two-step operation. Food and beverage items consumed daily by, households (whether purchased, acquired as gift or transfer and home-produced) and related expenditures on different items of food and beverages along with number of members present were collected through the diary system questionnaire. The information for a PSU was collected by a designated "diary keeper" who was usually an educated and unemployed young person residing at the locality. For each sample area, the diary keeper daily visited 8 sample households usually in the evening or the following morning in event ofevening visit being not successful and continued collection of data for the first fortnight. For checking quality of data the work was intensively supervised by regular BBS staff. The remaining 8 sample households data were collected the same way during the second fortnight. Expenditures on durable, non-durable and other non-food items were collected through a separate "schedule" by statistical investigators of statistical assistants from BBS regional statistical offices. The nonfood data had varying lengths of recall period
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning
In all 11,520 diary books and schedules were received in RISS Wing for processing. 30 statistical investigators and statistical assistants did manual editing and coding of all returns under supervision of statistical officers. The final processing was done in main frame computer of BBS.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS
STATISTICS AND INFORMATICS DIVISION, MINISTRY OF PLANNING