This report is based on the Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), conducted in 2019 by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The survey provides statistically sound and internationally comparable data essential for developing evidence-based policies and programmes, and for monitoring progress toward national goals and global commitments.
A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities
More than two decades ago, the Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s called for: “Each country should establish appropriate mechanisms for the regular and timely collection, analysis and publication of data required to monitor relevant social indicators relating to the well-being of children …. Indicators of human development should be periodically reviewed by national leaders and decision makers, as is currently done with indicators of economic development…”
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys programme was developed soon after, in the mid-1990s, to support countries in this endeavour.
Governments that signed the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research”
(A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60)
Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) called for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.”
The General Assembly Resolution, adopted on 25 September 2015, “Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” stipulates that for the success of the universal SDG agenda, “quality, accessible, timely and reliable disaggregated data will be needed to help with the measurement of progress and to ensure that no one is left behind” (paragraph 48); recognizes that “…baseline data for several of the targets remains unavailable...” and calls for “…strengthening data collection and capacity building in Member States...”
The global indicator framework was adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017 and contains 232 indicators. The Inter-Agency and Expert Group on the Sustainable Development Goals Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) is continuously working on the refinement of the indicators. The IAEG-SDGs classified all indicators into three tiers based on their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level. As of 22 May 2019, Tier I contained 104 indicators, Tier II contained 88 indicators and Tier III contained 34 indicators. Six of these Tier I indicators are included in multiple tiers. The Government of Bangladesh adopted all SDG indicators as well as framework, policies, programmes and partnerships.
Despite challenges, Bangladesh is on track to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. According to the “SDG Bangladesh Progress Report 2018,” the country is performing well in poverty reduction, gender equality, electricity, sanitation and annual GDP growth. However, the report did underscore a need for improved international cooperation and support in order to meet 41 out of the 169 targets that fall within the 17 SDGs.
The Bangladesh MICS 2019 results are critically important for the purposes of SDG monitoring, as the survey produces information on 29 global SDG indicators adopted by the Monitoring and Evaluation Framework of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Bangladesh Perspective, either in their entirety or partially.
The Bangladesh MICS 2019 has as its primary objectives:
• To provide high quality data for assessing the situation of children, adolescents, women and households in Bangladesh MICS 2019;
• To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward national goals, as a basis for future action;
• To collect disaggregated data for the identification of disparities, to inform policies aimed at social inclusion of the most vulnerable;
• To validate data from other sources and the results of focused interventions;
• To generate data on national and global SDG indicators;
• To generate internationally comparable data for the assessment of the progress made in various areas, and to put additional efforts in those areas that require more attention;
• To generate behavioural and attitudinal data not available in other data sources.
From Bangladesh MICS 2012-13, this round, the chapter titles are revised and included new modules to emphasis on SDGs 2030 agenda, other globally recommended indicators, and emerging issues related to children. This report presents the results of Bangladesh MICS 2019. Following chapter 2 on survey methodology, including sample design and implementation, all indicators covered by the survey, with their definitions, are presented in “Indicators and definitions” in chapter 3. Prior to presenting the survey results, organized into thematic chapters, the coverage of the sample and the main characteristics of respondents is covered in chapter 4, “Sample coverage and characteristics of respondents” includes migratory status*, adult functioning (women age 18-49 years) *, mass media and ICT*. From chapter 5, all survey results are presented in seven thematic chapters. In each chapter, a brief introduction of the topic and the description of all tables, are followed by the tabulations.
Chapter 5 “Survive”, includes findings on childhood mortalities.
This is followed by chapter 6, “Thrive – Reproductive and maternal health”, which presents findings on fertility, early childbearing, family planning, unmet need, antenatal care, neonatal tetanus, delivery care, birthweight, and postnatal care, HIV and ends with maternal morbidity*.
The following chapter 7, “Thrive – Child health, nutrition and development” presents findings on disease episodes, diarrhoea, household energy use, symptoms of acute respiratory infection, infant and young child feeding, malnutrition, salt iodisation, and early childhood development.
Learn is the topic of the next chapter ‘8’, where survey findings on early childhood education, educational attendance, paternal involvement in children’s education, and foundational learning skills* are covered. The next chapter ‘9’, “Protected from violence and exploitation”, includes survey results on birth registration, child discipline, child labour*, child marriage, victimisation*, feelings of safety*, and attitudes toward domestic violence*.
Chapter 10, “Live In a safe and clean environment”, covers the topics of drinking water, safely managed drinking water services*, handwashing, sanitation, and menstrual hygiene*. In addition to E. coli at source and in household, chapter 10 also includes Bangladesh specific indicator for arsenic in drinking water at source and in household.
The final thematic chapter ‘11’ is on equity – titled “Equitable chance in life” is new addition in this survey; the chapter presents findings on a range of equity related new topics, first time included covers child functioning*, social transfers*, victimisation*, feelings of safety*, attitudes towards domestic violence*.
The report ends with appendices, with detailed information on sample design, personnel involved in the survey, estimates of sampling errors, data quality, and the questionnaires used.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Table SR.1.1 presents results of the sample implementation including response rates. Of the 64,400 households selected for the sample, 61,602 were found occupied. Of these, 61,242 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 99.4 percent.
The Water Quality Testing Questionnaire was administered to 12,251 households in four randomly selected households in each cluster. Of these, 12,238 households were successfully tested for household drinking water quality for arsenic yielding a response rate of 99.9 percent. Also, 3,028 households were successfully tested for source drinking water for arsenic with a response rate 98.5 percent. Finally, 6,069 households in two randomly selected households in each cluster were successfully tested for household and source water quality for E. coli yielding a response rate of 98.7 percent.
In the interviewed households, 68,711 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 64,378 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 93.7 percent within the interviewed households. There were 24,686 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 23,099 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 93.6 percent within the interviewed households.
A sub-sample of children age 5-17 years was used to administer the questionnaire for children age 5-17. Only one child was selected randomly in each household interviewed, and there were 68,705 children age 5-17 years listed in the household questionnaires. Of these, 40,617 children were selected, and questionnaires were completed for 39,386 which corresponds to a response rate of 97.0 percent within the interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 93.1%, 93.0% and 96.4% are calculated for the individual interviews of women, under-5s, and children age 5-17 years, respectively.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children's Fund
The sample for the Bangladesh MICS 2019 was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, for eight divisions and sixty-four districts. The number of primary sampling unit (PSU) and number of sampled households in the survey were 3,220 and 64,400 respectively. The urban and rural areas within each district was identified as the main sampling strata and the sample of households were selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census enumeration areas were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. After a household listing was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 20 households was drawn in each sample PSUs. As the sample is not self-weighting, sample weights are used for reporting survey results. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A: ‘Sample Design’.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Five questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) A household questionnaire to collect basic demographic information on all de jure household members (usual residents), the household, and the dwelling; 2) A water quality testing questionnaire administered in four households in each clusters of the sample for arsenic and two households for E. coli ; 3) A questionnaire for individual women administered in each household to all women age 15-49 years; 4) An under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers (or caretakers) of all children under 5 living in the household; and 5) a questionnaire for children age 5-17 years, administered to the mother (or caretaker) of one randomly selected child age 5-17 years living in the household1.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children's Fund
Data were received at the central office of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) via Internet File Streaming System (IFSS) integrated into the management application on the supervisors’ tablets. Whenever logistically possible, synchronisation was daily. The central office communicated application updates to field teams through this system. During data collection and following the completion of fieldwork, data were edited according to editing process described in detail in the Guidelines for Secondary Editing, a customised version of the standard MICS6 documentation.
Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 23. Model syntax and tabulation plan developed by UNICEF were customised and used for this purpose.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS)
Statistics and Informatics Division, Ministry of Planning
Social Policy, Evaluation, Analytics and Research Section (SPEAR)
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS
Statistics and Informatics Division, Ministry of Planning