Bangladesh is a country with an agro-based economy. According to the population Census of 1991 the population of the country is 108 million. Most of these population live in the rural areas of the country. In rural Bangladesh people are dependent on agriculture. The agriculture sector of Bangladesh is not yet modernized. Therefore, multiple use of land for increasing the intensity of cropping does not prevail in the country. So, employment opportunity in the agriculture sector is very limited and transient. The landless agricultural labourers and labourers with small amount of land become unemployed during lean period, that is in preharvest and post-harvest periods. Even the middle farmers become unemployed during the lean period.
Poverty is closely associated with unemployment, chronic unemployment in rural Bangladesh has. created high level of poverty.
After the independence of Bangladesh, the rural Works Programme continued in the name of Food For Work (F.F.W.) in the dry season and post rainy season repair work as Test Relief (T.R.). In 1975 a Programme was introduced for destitute rural women and their under-nourished children, known as Vulnerable Group Development Programme (V.G.D).
This programme is different from F.F.W. and T.R. Under this programme food aid is provided to the destitute women with minor children on a monthly basis. In addition to food aids the women are offered skill training in different disciplines like sweing, knitting, doll making, typing etc. The objective of this training is to make them self supporting. Another component of the V.G.D. programme is the Institutional Feeding (I.F.) where food aids are provided to the institutions, like-orphanages, child homes etc. Vocational training is also imparted to the inmates to make them self sufficient.
Untill the implementation of this project there was no agency, other than the ministry itself, to evaluate the impact of these programmes. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics of the Ministry of Planning has been entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring and evaluation of these programmes under the project "Monitoring and Evaluation of Food for Work, Vulnerable Group Development and Test Relief in Bangladesh."
The objectives of the project are follows:
- Monitoring and evaluation of the distribution of food under Food for Work Programme.
- Monitoring and evaluation of Food for Work Programme in the name of Test Relief in the lean period, particularly during rainy season.
- Monitoring and Evaluation of Vulnerable Group Development (V.G.D.) and Institutional Feeding (I.F.).
- Evaluation of the impact of Food for Works and other allied programmes on income, consumption, employment, nutritional status, socio-demographic characteristics etc. of the ruralf worker communities and V.G.D. and I.F. beneficiaries.
To fulfill the objectives of the project three nationwide surveys namely survey on Test Relief operation (STRO), Survey on Food for Works (SFFW), Survey on Vulnerable Group Development (SVGD) including Institutional Feeding (IF) are being conducted annually. The present report is based on survey on Food for Work conducted during May - June, 1989.
Objectives of the survey of FFW.
The objectives of the survey of FFW were as follows:
- To monitor the distribution system of food.
- To evaluate the impact of the programme on demographic & Socio-economic characteristics of the beneficiaries compared to their non-beneficiary counterpart.
- To study the different aspects of the projects taken under FFW.
- To evaluate the system of payment, mode of payment, awareness regarding wage rate and other condition of the labourers.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The entire area of rural Bangladesh was the universe for the present survey. Multistage sampling design has been adopted for sample selection. At each stage simple random sampling (without replacement) technique has been adopted. Each district (64) has been treated as stratum for the selection of sample. One upazila (PSU, the primary sampling unit) has been selected from each district using simple random sampling unit) has also been selected from each selected upazila.
Again from the selected union one project has been selected randomly. The labourer's households who worked in the selected project were listed. Information regarding their household size, monthly income. landownership and chowkidary tax were also collected. From the list of labourers, 30 labour households were selected at random for detailed interview. To study the socio-economic impact of the Food for Work programme, another list of people, herein after called non-beneficiaries, from the poorest section of the village was made and similar information collected from the list of non-beneficiary households 30 households were selected on the basis of land ownership, yearly income and chowkidary tax similar to that of the beneficiaries household selected earlier. These two groups were then interviewed. The total number of households covered under the present survey was 3840 (1920 + 1920).
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS
Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Ministry of Planning
The filled-in schedules of the survey were edited and coded by the statistical investigator and assista siaustical officers under close supervision of senior officer of the project. The edited schedules we processed by the Computer and Data Processing (CDP) Wing of B.B.S. Tables for schedule-4 (informan the project implementation) were prepared using the micro-computer installed in the project.