The National Labour Force Survey (LFS) 1996-1997 conducted by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Since 1980, although some of the previous surveys could not be held at uniform time intervals due to resource constraints and other reasons. It covers all the populations aged 10 years and over who were engaged in economic activities as defined by UN System of National Accounts, 1993. All persons covered by the survey are classified, as usual, into three distinct categories, namely employed, unemployed and not in labour force.
The survey covered the whole of the country desegregated by urban and rural areas as in the case of the pervious ones. International concepts and definitions have been followed and indutry and occupational classifications are based on relevant Bangladesh Standard classifications, which are comparable to the corresponding international classifications.
Two sets of definitions of economically active population are currently being used, one is the usual or conventional definitions and the other is called the extended definition. According to the usual or conventional definition any person aged 10 years and above who was either employed or unemployed during the reference period and any person of the same age putting in a minimum of one hour's work in family farms/enterprises for pay or profit during the reference period is considered economically active. Household economic activities are not considered as economic activities in the usual definition. On the other hand, according to the extended definitibn any person of the same age specification who was engaged in household economic activities such as care of poultry and livestock, threshing, cleaning, boiling, drying, processing and preservation of food etc. with or without pay or profit during the reference period is treated as economically active. Students, disabled persons, armed services personnel, inmates of jails, pensioners, and other income recipients, etc. are excluded under both the definitions. Therefore, under the extended definitions a large number of persons particularly womenfolk in agro-based rural households in Bangladesh who mostly perform various non-market production activities (as defined by UN System of National Accounts, 1993) are included in the economically active population. Naturally, the number of labour force under the extended definition is much higher compared to the usual or conventional definitions.
Considering the importance of and basic difference between the two definitions of economically active population, labour force characteristics gathered through the survey are tabulated and presented separately for the two definitions for clarity of understanding and comparison.
The purpose of the survey, like those of the earlier ones, is to estimate the size and compositions of civilian labour force and its characteristics such as age and sex specific labour force participation, employment status, hours worked, earnings, duration of unemployment etc. Some particulars of the educated unemployed, have also been collected through the survey and incorporated in. the report.
In order to facilitate comparison of data of this survey with those of the previous ones, some of the basic tables on employed and unemployed population have been shown covering population 10 years of age and over. This has been done by including the relevant data of the concerned age group 10-14 from the child labour statistics. Data on economically active population are recomputed on this basis and presented in relevant tables for comparison.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Usual definition: It refers to any person aged 15 years and over who was either employed (worked at least one hour in a week) for pay or profit or with/without pay or profit or unemployed (seeking/available for job) during the reference period as economically active. It excludes on household economic activities.
Extended cefinition: It refers to any persons aged 15 years and over who was either employed (worked at I least one hour in a week) for pay or profit or with/without pay or profit or unemployed (seeking/available for job) during the reference period as economically active. It includes on household economic activities (such as, care of poultry & livestock, threshing, boiling, dryng, processing and preservation of food etc.)
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS
Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning
The Survy of Labour Force 1996-97 was undertaken using Integrated Multipurpose Sample (IIVIPS) design. The IMPS design is based on the 1991 Population Census area frame and consists of 442 primary sampling units (PSUs) 252 rural and 190 urban. In the rural areas the PSU is defined as a mauza and in the urban area as a mohallah with average househod size 250. There are two stages of stratification. At first, 5 administrative divisions are treated as superstrata and within these superstrata there is the second stage of stratification comprising (i) Rural areas, (ii) Statistical Metropolitan areas (SMAs) and (iii) Municipalities. Statistical Metropolitan Areas and Municipalities constitute urban sample areas. Thus there area 14 strata altogether (50 less 1 since there is no SMA in Bansal Division). The number of sample 442 PSUs are allocated among the 14 strata as follows.
In the 1st stage a total of 442 PSU's were drawn from the sampling frame with probability proportional to size (PPS). These PSU's were selected from 14 different strata. There were 5 rural & 9 urban strata. In the second stage, 20 households from each rural PSU and 25 households from each urban PSU were selected randomly. Thus, the number of households selected for the rural areas was 252 x 20 = 5040 households while in the urban area no. of households selected was 190 x 25 = 4750. Therefore the total size of the sample was 9790 households.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
This survey is a regular one aimed at providing current estimates of labour force in the country. The survey was carried out under the guidance and supervision of a Technical Committee set up for this purpose.
All the 296 Thana Statistical Officers (TSO) and 22 Regional Statistical Officers (RSO) of BBS were involved during the field operation. All the Thana Statistical officers and 373 Junior Statistical Assistant/Statistical Investigators were engaged as Thana Survey Co-ordinators and Supervisor respectively. All the 22 Regional Statistical Officers were engaged as Regional Survey Coordinators as well as Master trainers of the survey. The headquarters staff of the Labouk Force Branch of the Industry and Labour.Wing were also deployed as supervisors and master trainers. Besides, 23 senior level officers of BBS (Deputy Directors & Senior Statistical , Officers) were also engaged for overall supervisions and co-ordination of the survey Work. The detailed field operation of the survey is explained in the following section.
Type of Research Instrument
The draft questionnaire for the Survey on Labour Force was designed on the basis of the objectives of the survey. The main objective was to finalise the questionnaires and develop instruction and training manuals, control forms, survey procedures etc. Two field pretests were carried out in both rural and urban areas. The main objectives of the pretest were:
1. To test the suitability of the survey questionnaire
2. To test and verify the coverage of items as per objectives of the survey
3. To identify the questions which the respondents/enumerators find difficult to answer, and
4. To estimate the time required for filling in the questionnaire, etc.
The pretested questionnaires were thoroughly reviewed and analysed and placed in the meeting of the Technical Committee. The Technical Committee suggested redesigning the questionnaires with certain changes for the second pretest . The second pretest was conducted with the redesigned and modified questionnaire. The survey questionnaires and instruction manual were finalised incorporating the findings of the second pretest and were then examined and approved by the Technical Committee.
Ministry of Planning
Preliminary checking of entries in the questionnaires was done by the supervisors and enumerators at field level. Thorough. manual editing was carried out by the trained editors in Dhaka headquarters. Coding of occupation and industry was done by using Bangladesh. Standard Occupational Classification (BSOC) and Bangladesh Standard Industrial Classification, (BSIC)at 4 digit level. Other items were also coded in accordance with their respective code lists.
The edited and coded questionnaires were sent in batches to Computer Wing for computer procersing. Computer edit was done to check internal consistency omissions and errors. The ab1es were produced in micro computer environment of the BBS. Each individual record was tallied and expanded using sample weights to obtain national estimates.